setelah postingan minggu lalu yaitu proposal skripsi bahasa inggris atau bisa kita sebut thesis atau semacamnya (saya kurang paham) hahaha sok bego..! kalau teman2 mau contoh proposal skripsi bahasa inggris / thesis bagian satu bisa langsung check it out here: http://k4kjebz.blogspot.com/2012/03/proposal-skripsi-bahasa-inggris-thesis.html ...
okay.. this i try to present 'proposal skripsi bahasa inggris bagian 2' ini masih 'new' masih 'hot' masih 'newest' karena baru siap hari ini ( tahun 2012 )
ok langsung saja ke proposal nya... this is the thesis (new)
I N T R O D U C T I O N
- Background of Study
English is an important part of Indonesians’ curriculum of education. Thus, it plays a big role in every step of education. Actually, there are four main aspects in learning English, such as listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Of course other skills such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and spelling play a role in effective English communication. Since, English is on the way of becoming global language.
Among the four aspects, writing takes a significant role in mastering English. Daniel said, ”Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).”
In the case of writing essay, paraphrase is an important tool that allows students to include other people's ideas without cluttering their essay with quotations. Paraphrase means to express what somebody has said or written using different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand. There are two kinds of paraphrasing. The first is summary. In this method, large amounts of text or ideas are reduced to a few sentences. Entire novels or even periods of history could be summarized into a few sentences. For example, “The Civil War demonstrated that any army without access to ports and canon factories would very likely lose a war.” That summarizes an entire four years in one simple sentence. Of course, there is far more to the Civil War than ports and canons. But that is one summary. The other kind of paraphrasing involves taking the words of another author and using the same concepts or ideas, but putting them into your own words. It does not require to shorten the original info as a summary. It could be less or longer than the original text. . It could be seen below:
Original Source Material: Developing complex skills in the classroom involves the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4) scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior.
Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Correct paraphrasing : According to Gredler (2001), the same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
This example has been paraphrased and is not considered plagiarized. The author was cited at the end of the passage as well as in the bibliographic section. Since paraphrasing occurred, quotation marks are not used. Nothing was directly quoted.
Therefore, by considering those above aspects, the writer is interested in conducting the research entitled, ”An analysis of students’ error in paraphrasing written text.“
B. Research Question
The problems that the writer would discuss in this research are mentioned in the following question:
1. What kind of error that most occurred on students’ paraphrasing performance?
2. What are the causes of errors performed by students on paraphrasing written text?
“Analysis means to examine the nature or structure of something, especially by separating it into its parts, in order to understand more about it.” The writer conducts the error analysis in paraphrasing written text.
“Error is a mistake made by a learner when writing or speaking and which is caused by lack of attention, fatigue, carelessness, or some other aspect of performance.” Errors refer to the failure to use the system correctly caused by the lack of the learners’ competence.
“Paraphrasing is using your own words to express someone else's ideas whilst still preserving the main ideas of the original source.” Therefore, paraphrase is a tool for students to expand writing skill.
D. The aims of study
Based on the problem above, the writer intends to create the aims of study. They are:
1. To know the type of error made by students in performing paraphrase.
2. To recognize the causes of errors conducted by students in paraphrasing written text.
E. Population and sample
The population in the research is fifth semester students of English department, and for sampling purposes is unit 3.
F. Research Methodology
The writer considers that qualitative is useful method for this purpose. In order to gather the data needed, the writer uses distributing questionnaire and data analysis.
A.S Hornby, oxford ADVANCED LEARNER’s Dictionary of current English(6th ED). (New York:oxford university press, 2003), p.41.
Jack Richards, john Platt, and Heidi Webber. Longman dictionary of applied Linguistics, (England: Longman, 1985), p.95.
(online) from http://www.newcastle.edu.au/resources/divisions/academic/library/information-skills/foundation-portal/referencing-paraphrasing.html. Retrieved October 6, 2011
(online) from http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/dictionary/paraphrase. Ritrieved October 6, 2011
Peter T. Daniels, "The Study of Writing Systems", in The World's Writing Systems, ed. Bright and Daniels, p. 3
1. An analysis of students’ obstacle in delivering speech
2. Students’ Self concept in achieving high score in delivering speech
3. Learning strategy to develop speaking fluency
 (online) from http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/dictionary/paraphrase. Ritrieved October 6, 2011